Customers should always request third party lab results that test for potency, pesticides, residual solvents, and mycotoxins of the CBD hemp oil. If a company is reluctant to share these results with you, it should automatically be a red flag and indicate that they have something to hide. We’ve done the work and checked if these brands offer those tests to their customers. We’ve assigned a letter grade of C, B, A, or A+ based on what kind of lab results are offered to customers. All the brands on this list at least offer tests showing the levels of CBD and THC in them (with THC under the legal limits for hemp of 0.3%), but brands which go further are rated higher.

What if there was a treatment that had positive benefits for nearly all patients, and with minimal side effects? As cannabidiol becomes increasingly researched and better understood, it’s very apparent that it is a better alternative to many modern medications. Not only is CBD completely natural as a cannabinoid and is proven to aid in an array of serious symptoms, it carries very little after effects as compared to most pharmaceutical drugs.
If you talk to someone who has studied cannabis, they will tell you that cannabinoids (or phytocannabinoids, in plants) were part of the human diet for a very long time, dating back centuries. Your body even produces its own cannabinoids that are called endocannabinoids. Adding cannabis plant derivatives to your wellness plan gives your body more cannabinoids to use.
I recently was a guest at a medical marijuana educational event that highlighted the work of researcher Michael Backes. During his presentation he made a statement about CBD that I have never heard anywhere else that CBD is “regulating” (my word) the effects of THC. I asked the Nurse Practitioner at the event, Ivy Lou Hibbitt of Certicann.com, what he meant by that and she said it was her understanding of Michael’s comment that he takes CBD to reduce the psychoactive effects of THC. Has this property of CBD, that it can lessen psychoactive effects, ever been researched elsewhere?
At the top of our ranking is Portland-based Lazarus Naturals, which has honed a reputation for high-quality, affordable CBD. Their consciously crafted CBD is sourced from organic, Oregon-grown hemp which the company controls from seed to sale. With low prices, a robust assistance program, free shipping, and a 30-day, no questions asked return policy, you really can’t go wrong with Lazarus Naturals.

That’s an excellent question, Denise! The answer is two-fold. Generally, a ‘high’ dose would be anything significantly above the recommended doses on the products themselves. However, it’s also important to remember that all of our bodies are a bit different. For those who are more sensitive to CBD, a daily dose may be half the recommended dose for them to see amazing results. When it comes to dosing, just remember that it’s okay to play around and find what works best for your body. If you ever run into any questions, feel free to call us. We’re here to help! 608-663-2640
Thanks for taking the time to leave us this feedback. Dry mouth is not an uncommon side effect of CBD oil, but difficulty swallowing and breathing would indicate that you may have an allergy. However, because the symptoms are lingering, we’d suggest seeing your doctor, as an allergic reaction to any substance would not last for longer than a few hours to a few days at most. If there’s anything we can do to help, or if your doctor would want to call us to chat through any questions regarding CBD oil, know that we’re happy to do so.
As more and more states legalize the use of marijuana, a product known as CBD oil has surged in popularity. A chemical compound found in the cannabis plant, CBD, or cannabidiol, is non-intoxicating and does not cause the noticeable euphoric effects associated with tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC, another marijuana compound). Products marketed as CBD oil may contain THC.
A survey of patients seen in a tertiary epilepsy center found that 21% of patients admitted to using marijuana in the last year, and 24% of patients believed marijuana to be effective for their seizures (10). While interesting, this anecdotal observation does not rise to the level of evidence needed to evaluate a potential new therapeutic modality.
CBD oil almost always gets rid of my RLS immediately when I put a couple of drops behind my knees (250 mg. full spectrum, whole plant). This oil IS from the hemp plant and, according to the information, free store may have only a trace of tHC in it, but not enough to cause hallucinations. I would request detailed information from the distributor and from your dr.
The unflavored oil is derived from organic hemp seed oil. It is considered both vegan and gluten-free, and does not have any artificial sweeteners or preservatives. The oil contains 0.3% THC, meaning those who face the possibility of drug tests may want to avoid taking it, but this relatively small amount produces little, if any, psychoactive effect. The price per mg is $0.11, making the Spruce Lab Grade CBD Oil less expensive than average.

The fact that Hemp Oil for Pain Relief comes with many benefits, as shown above, makes it impressive. Few may not afford to purchase one, but the price is okay for many customers. The peppermint flavor is excellent; many people love the taste. I love the fact that the oil can help if having difficulties in sleeping or have a heart problem. Hemp Oil for Pain Relief is a valuable discovery; the manufacturers did a fantastic job. People now can get help in eradicating stress and anxiety. If you are looking for the best CBD oil, Hemp Oil for Pain Relief should be your choice.


Hi Treasha – We’d recommend backing down on the dose you’re taking. Changing the type of CBD oil you’re taking too may also help. Some people respond better to an isolate vs full-spectrum, etc. If you stop in the store, bring your open bottle and we can chat with you about how much you’re taking and when, or get your current CBD exchanged for a different brand. Finding the right fit the first time around can sometimes be tricky, but that’s why we have our product guarantee in place! Stop by or give us a call – we’re here to help!
Due to my other issues, I’m extremely out of shape even though I’m not much overweight. I can’t even walk for 10 minutes without causing myself considerable pain. I do everything I can to avoid traveling in vehicles and only do so if it’s less than a 15 minute ride because it’s all my anxiety and other issues can manage. I’m only 39 and I feel like I’m not even a living person anymore and I’m sick of it. I’m desperate for a solution and mental health therapy, physical therapy, various prescriptions that have come and gone over the years have not given me much help at all. My body doesn’t react well to pharmaceutical pain relievers. I’ve been given many prescriptions over the years that I’ve stopped because they just didn’t work and they gave me weird reactions. None of those reactions were “serious” reactions, but they made me anxious and freaked me out. I’ve been prescribed several different medications over the years for my stomach issues and various nausea related issues (including Protonix, Zantac, Prevacid and Prilosec for my GERD issues, and Phenergan, Zofran and an anti-motion sickness patch I can’t remember the name of.) And I’m sick of being sick… I’m sick of taking so much nausea medication that makes me sleepy. I’m sick of being afraid of everything.
Other targets for CBD include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are involved with the modulation of intracellular calcium (1, 6). Cannabinoids are highly lipophilic, allowing access to intracellular sites of action, resulting in increases in calcium in a variety of cell types including hippocampal neurons. CBD actions on calcium homeostasis may provide a basis for CBD neuroprotective properties.
Other potential side effects include low blood pressure, lightheadedness, and drowsiness, but these have typically only occurred in patients who have exceeded doses of 1,500 mg daily for a period of 4 weeks or more; far more than the average person will need take on a daily basis for chronic pain symptoms. (In fact, the majority of CBD users claim they find an effective dose to be anywhere between 10 and 40 mg daily).
This is good news for the best CBD oil companies because the Farm Bill allows for the legal cultivation of industrial hemp, under certain circumstances, which can be a source of CBD. But CBD can also come from non-industrial hemp, namely the marijuana plant that most are more familiar with. Therefore, whether or not CBD oil for pain is legal can be a question of which “version” of the cannabis plant it was sourced from. If it was sourced from industrial hemp, (which contains less than 0.3% THC by volume), and it was cultivated under the Farm Bill, then it is legal.
The amount of milligrams of CBD you should take depends on your specific reason for taking CBD. If you are using CBD to treat chronic pain, you might take a much higher dose than someone who would be using CBD for general wellness reasons. Google search for your specific condition or reason for taking CBD to find the dose that is appropriate for you. You can take CBD in high qualities, so feel free to test out different dosages and see how your body reacts. A standard dose of CBD is 10 mg once a day, but this varies so widely because each individual is different so this can’t be taken as a recommendation for you.
Unfortunately due to the disappointing and down right inaccurate position of the federal government in classifying Cannabis as a schedule one drug, most research institutions risk federal funding if they conduct real research on Cannabis. This has dramatically limited the potential for real research by real scientists to be conducted. That research is critical to better understanding the multitude of therapeutic effects of the various chemical constituents found in Cannabis.
When administered alone, CBD is an effective anticonvulsant in maximal electrical shock (MES), magnesium-free, 4-aminopyridine, and audiogenic models (7, 8). Co-administration with AEDs leads to various effects; anticonvulsant effects of CBD are enhanced with phenytoin or phenobarbital but decreased with chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, trimethadione, and ethosuximide. In a recent study using an acute pilocarpine model, although CBD administration reduced the number of animals displaying seizure activity, CBD did not appear to have any significant effect on the number of seizures per animal (7).
It is a natural supplement made from GMO-free hemp. The method used in extracting the hemp oil is supercritical and uses CO2. Tests are made for each batch to ensure that the concentration is accurate. Canolane Organic Hemp Oil Drops 5000mg is therefore green, safe, and of high quality. As full spectrum oil, Canolane Organic Hemp Oil Drops 5000mg contains essential vitamins like proteins, minerals, flavonoids, fatty acids, and terpenes.
The human body also produces cannabinoids, known as endocannabinoids, in a bodily system known as the endocannabinoid system (or ECS). The ECS promotes homeostasis by regulating a wide range of functions, including motor skills, mood, appetite, and sleep. As we age, our ECS produces fewer endocannabinoids; they may also decrease due to physical injury or disease. Replenishing depleted endocannabinoids with phytocannabinoids like CBD can help restore balance to the body.

During pregnancy and breastfeeding: We would like to point out that there is no clear information as to whether it is safe to use CBD oil during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Although the use of CBD seems to be very safe, there are simply no studies that confirm this for use in pregnancy and breastfeeding. Therefore, if in doubt, you should not use CBD at this time.
Majority of cannabinoids have been shown to have positive effects on the immune system, particularly the CBD oil, as it helps regulate over-active immune systems. This basically means less susceptibility to various kinds of allergens. Moreover, since CBD oil contains a high amount of omega 3 which supports the growth of micro organisms which live in the intestines, it can aid in enhancement of the immune system, and your body will be able to fight flu, illnesses and germs more easily.
Hi Treasha – We’d recommend backing down on the dose you’re taking. Changing the type of CBD oil you’re taking too may also help. Some people respond better to an isolate vs full-spectrum, etc. If you stop in the store, bring your open bottle and we can chat with you about how much you’re taking and when, or get your current CBD exchanged for a different brand. Finding the right fit the first time around can sometimes be tricky, but that’s why we have our product guarantee in place! Stop by or give us a call – we’re here to help!
Lower Blood Pressure. High doses of CBD oil can cause a small drop in blood pressure in some individuals. This will usually occur within a few minutes of the CBD oil entering your system. This doesn’t happen to everyone, and the worst you should expect is a few minutes of feeling lightheaded. However, if you have any problems with low or high blood pressure, or are taking any medications for blood pressure, talk to your doctor before trying CBD oil, because this may not be a good fit for you.
Non-THC CBD oils can be highly effective, and are suitable for employees who face random or routine drug tests. Our top pick for this category is the Medterra CBD Oil Tincture, which contains 99.6% CBD and MCT oil (also known as coconut oil extract) without any traces of THC. The oil is derived from hemp plants that are free of GMOs and pesticides, as well. All third-party testing results for the oil are accessible through Medterra’s official product page.
Calm by Wellness is voted the best-tasting and most trusted CBD on the market today. Grown in Loveland, Colorado and manufactured in Irvine, California – Calm by Wellness has pioneered functional terpene blends with a whole plant broad spectrum hemp extract formulated with only organic and natural ingredients. They believe in helping everyone find calm every day which we absolutely love. Every product comes with a risk-free 30-day guarantee because every batch is triple lab-tested and recommended by their advisory board of doctors and scientists. Their Strawberry Lemon-Aid CBD Tincture is not only unique but tastes great (they have Peppermint too, along with their line of Chill, Focus, and Sleep tinctures)! And their customer service is amazing.
This highly concentrated, high-quality CBD cream features the cooling sensation of menthol combined with naturally-sourced CBD (just like all Diamond products) for the most effective pain relief formula ever devised. Similar to the Hemp Bombs pain freeze, just rub this cream into sore muscles and joints and feel immediate relief. Great for use just before or after exercising to enhance performance.
Disclaimer: This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A Doctor's advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. All trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective owners and are not affiliated with nor do they endorse this product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Individual weight loss results will vary. By using this site, you agree to follow the Privacy Policy and all Terms & Conditions printed on this site. Void Where Prohibited by Law.
At the moment, using CBD oil in massage therapy is trendy. The compound, called cannabidiol and shortened to CBD, is an active ingredient found within the cannabis plant. Studies show that CBD may provide a range of therapeutic benefits, from wide ranging pain relief and anxiety relief to treating acne and alleviating cancer treatment side effects. It would be an understatement to say the true benefits of this wide-reaching oil are yet to be fully established.

I recently was a guest at a medical marijuana educational event that highlighted the work of researcher Michael Backes. During his presentation he made a statement about CBD that I have never heard anywhere else that CBD is “regulating” (my word) the effects of THC. I asked the Nurse Practitioner at the event, Ivy Lou Hibbitt of Certicann.com, what he meant by that and she said it was her understanding of Michael’s comment that he takes CBD to reduce the psychoactive effects of THC. Has this property of CBD, that it can lessen psychoactive effects, ever been researched elsewhere?

If you talk to someone who has studied cannabis, they will tell you that cannabinoids (or phytocannabinoids, in plants) were part of the human diet for a very long time, dating back centuries. Your body even produces its own cannabinoids that are called endocannabinoids. Adding cannabis plant derivatives to your wellness plan gives your body more cannabinoids to use.


If your intention is to help treat chronic pain, then you may want to start out with a lower dose, and then proceed from there. If you notice effective results, you can downsize the dose, or likewise you can always up the dose until positive results are achieved. The key is to only increase your dosage in small increments so that you are able to pinpoint exactly how much CBD oil it takes to treat your condition. Be advised, though, that you should not exceed the recommended daily doses that are listed on the bottle and you should consult with a physician.
The above details illustrate the value of House of Healing Hemp Oil to our health. Apart from relieving pain and anxiety, it also contributes to the health of our heart system. Though not all people love the local flavor, many enjoy the taste. $59.99 is affordable for many people. As a result, House of Healing Hemp Oil is accessible. Among the best CBD oil on the market, it has won its place on the top. To experience the effectiveness of CBD oil, consider House of Healing Hemp Oil as a priority.
I’ve been taking CBD Oil for about 2 months and it isn’t turning out well. I’ve had all of the side effects mentioned in this article except I’ve had severe insomnia. Weird dreams when I do sleep, but insomnia mostly. Which makes it difficult to function the next day. Along with my torn up stomach, sweating, stomach cramp diarrhea. This is not good. I went back down to one drop under my tongue with no relief from these side effects. I hate the ideas of giving up on CBD Oil. I had such high Hope’s of getting away from big pharma drugs. 🙁
Using rigorous review methodology, Gloss and Vickery conclude that based on the low quality of the reports available, there is insufficient data available to draw any conclusions regarding the efficacy and or long-term safety of CBD in treating epilepsy (11). From the data available, it does appear that daily doses of 200 to 300 mg were safe in this small group of patients for a short period of time (14).
If you’re ready to experience the trend that everyone is talking about, picking any one of these high quality lotions is a great way to experience CBD. The Vapor Vanity review team has tested each one of these products and verified that they are the best possible products that money can buy. As long as you choose from this list, any choice you make is going to be a great one. We hope you enjoy reading our “best-of” list as much as we enjoyed creating it.
Another major reason why CBD oil has been positively received in some parts of the medical community is its apparent effect on cancer and tumor growth.A study done by the researchers of the Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Rostock, Germany recommends the use of CBD oil (even direct injection into tumors) to eliminate or reduce the size of the tumors. The antioxidants in CBD hemp oil also provide anti-mutagenic properties and lower users’ risk of cancer.

The above details illustrate the value of House of Healing Hemp Oil to our health. Apart from relieving pain and anxiety, it also contributes to the health of our heart system. Though not all people love the local flavor, many enjoy the taste. $59.99 is affordable for many people. As a result, House of Healing Hemp Oil is accessible. Among the best CBD oil on the market, it has won its place on the top. To experience the effectiveness of CBD oil, consider House of Healing Hemp Oil as a priority.
Another point worth clarifying is the difference between hemp seed oil (or hemp oil) and CBD oil. There’s confusion on this point for the very good reason that both CBD oil and hemp seed oil are extracted from the industrial hemp plant. But there’s a big difference between the 2. Hemp seed oil has been pressed from hemp seed, and it’s great for a lot of things — it’s good for you, tastes great, and can be used in soap, paint — even as biodiesel fuel.
Just like the Hemp Oil Drops (1000mg), it gets made from pure natural ingredients. As an omega supplement that relieves inflammation and chronic pain naturally, Hemp Master Drops Oil 1000mg also enhances better sleeping patterns and reduces stress and anxiety. With Hemp Master Drops Oil 1000mg, safety and quality are guaranteed. It is Colorado certified and grown organically. Hemp Master Drops Oil 1000mg is legal, and you need not to worry about breaking the law. Hemp Master Drops Oil 1000mg’s manufacturers offer a 100% money back guarantee.
Two dermatologists I consulted with, New York-based Whitney Bowe, MD and New Jersey-based Jeanette Jacknin, MD, both agreed that CBD’s anti-aging and anti-inflammatory benefits are clinically proven. “Studies have shown that the cannabinoids like CBD in marijuana are anti-inflammatory and anti-aging and topical CBD has proven helpful for acne, eczema, and psoriasis,” Jacknin told me. “Hemp seed oil is reputed to be the most unsaturated oil derived from the plant kingdom, so it is less pore clogging but a great moisturizer for dry, cracked skin.”

Lightheadedness or Dizziness. This is usually connected to low blood pressure, as mentioned in the point above, but some people just feel a little dizzy for a few moments after CBD oil hits their system. This typically passes within a few minutes on its own, or can usually be resolved by laying down for a few moments, drinking a cup of coffee or tea, or snacking on a little piece of chocolate.


The answer to this question may not be very conclusive. The biochemistry of every individual is different and CBD may react differently with every person. Some people may experience effects acutely while others may experience these effects later. Irrespective of these differences, clinical observations show that the effects of CBD oil can last for between four to six hours though the onset of action for CBD is just 20 to 30 minutes. 

This company’s origin story is well-known throughout the CBD industry. The company first came to fame after creating a strain of hemp that was able to reduce the number of seizures a young girl had from 200 a week to three per month. Named after the little girl whose life was forever changed, Charlotte’s Web is a highly respected brand in the CBD world. 


Unlike THC, which primarily binds to CB-1 receptors located in the brain, CBD works in the body by manipulating receptors throughout organ tissues, the immune system, the pain response system, the hormonal system, and other whole-body regulatory systems. Basically, since its receptors have been found to exist in virtually every cell and tissue type in the body, CBD is believed to work on every aspect of human health and behavior – from the subcellular level to the whole-body leve and beyond.
CBD lotion is being used by high-performance athletes and regular people alike for its’ pain-reliving properties. The nearly instantaneous pain relief that you’ll receive from applying this to aching joints and muscles is more effective than the vast majority of supplements and medications that are generally used for pain relief (depending on your own unique genetic makeup, of course. Some people see huge benefits, others less).
At the top of our ranking is Portland-based Lazarus Naturals, which has honed a reputation for high-quality, affordable CBD. Their consciously crafted CBD is sourced from organic, Oregon-grown hemp which the company controls from seed to sale. With low prices, a robust assistance program, free shipping, and a 30-day, no questions asked return policy, you really can’t go wrong with Lazarus Naturals.
CBD oil products can be somewhat expensive, which may be a barrier for individuals seeking treatment or relief from different conditions and disorders. Right alongside price comes taste and a lot of consumer don’t like the earthy flavor of hemp. cbdMD is here to help on both fronts with a wide range of flavors that actually taste good at a price consumers can afford. cbdMD offers it’s premium, non-THC oils at a large variety of concentrations (300mg-5,00mg) as well as sizes (30mL and 60mL) . These oils are priced at $28 for 300mg oils and $90 for 1,500mg oils; both price-points are significantly below average.
This solution is water-based and also contains CBD. Liberty Lotion claims to heal a variety of illnesses. The active ingredients of this particular product are Arnica Montana and CBD oil, both known to be very effective when it comes to treating a number of issues. Distilled water, emulsifying wax, citric acid, emu oil, stearic acid, glycerin, colloidal silver, benzyl alcohol and lavender oil are also in this solution.

These are one of the most popular (and effective) choices for arthritis and other forms of localized pain and inflammation. Since the skin acts as an excellent semi-permeable membrane that “let’s the good stuff and keeps the bad stuff out,” rubbing CBD-infused creams into the affected area has proved to be quite effective in terms of both pain and inflammation reduction.


As a Colorado certified hemp, it is grown and manufactured in the United States of America. It is free of GMO, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and herbicides, making it a top-notch product. Hemp Oil Drops contains high bioavailability potent, explaining why it makes you feel better quickly. The oil is a full spectrum supplement of 2500mg 10x formula. It has many functions like the reduction of anxiety, eases the pain, and boosts metabolism. Thanks to the natural oil extracted from hemp in this product. It is rich in 6 fatty acids and Omega 3 that helps in skin regeneration and tone. It also improves nails’ quality, dehydrates scalp and hair, and strengthens hair.
Customers should always request third party lab results that test for potency, pesticides, residual solvents, and mycotoxins of the CBD hemp oil. If a company is reluctant to share these results with you, it should automatically be a red flag and indicate that they have something to hide. We’ve done the work and checked if these brands offer those tests to their customers. We’ve assigned a letter grade of C, B, A, or A+ based on what kind of lab results are offered to customers. All the brands on this list at least offer tests showing the levels of CBD and THC in them (with THC under the legal limits for hemp of 0.3%), but brands which go further are rated higher.
Nabiximols (Sativex), a multiple sclerosis drug made from a combination of TCH and CBD, is approved in the United Kingdom and Canada to treat MS pain. However, researchers think the CBD in the drug may be contributing more with its anti-inflammatory properties than by acting against the pain. Clinical trials of CBD are necessary to determine whether or not it should be used for pain management.

Cannabidiol or CBD is an active compound in the cannabis plant. This is present in both hemp and cannabis. Compared to the popular tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, this is not psychoactive and it is safe for use, even by children. This product has no effect on the mind of the user. It only offers relaxation and pain relief. CBD is sometimes overlooked because of the stigma connected with cannabis and THC. However, there are many benefits to using it—including as a natural treatment for epilepsy. In this post, we will be looking at various uses of CBD Cream and Lotions as well as offering reviews of the best products on the market today.
In one survey, parents of children who suffer from treatment-resistant epilepsy and use CBD were asked about the benefits. 19 parents were included, 84% of which said that CBD reduced the frequency of seizures. Two parents said that CBD completely resolved seizures. Parents also reported improved alertness, sleep, and mood. Some side effects were drowsiness and fatigue [54].
Gloss and Vickrey conducted a Cochrane systematic review of the use of CBD in the treatment of epilepsy (11). Their methodology included only those trials that were randomized and controlled and excluded case series, case reports, and expert opinion. They were able to identify only 4 randomized controlled studies reported in the literature, and they included a letter to the editor and an abstract. The total number of subjects enrolled in these studies was 48 (11–14). While only four studies and a letter to the editor were in the actual analysis, the authors included a complete reference listing of all articles reviewed for inclusion.
House of Healing Hemp Oil gets manufactured in the United States of America. The facility where it gets made is approved by FDA, meaning the resulting product gets made from the finest ingredients. The oil boosts the cardiovascular health, relieves anxiety and calms you down. For useful results, it gets recommended that you take at least one full dropper daily. Every bottle lasts you approximately one month. You need not worry about your hard earned money; the manufacturers guarantee the return of the total amount if not satisfied with the results.
TOP PICK Pure Science Lab using full Spectrum CBD vs. CBD Isolate tops our list for best pain cream for athletes. You will want to use this like a normal rub, it provides a nice cooling sensation as it is infused with 7% Menthol – 250-500 mg CBD Hemp Oil Extract – and available in: 2 & 4 ounces. It is also portable and can be carried and used wherever you go.
In a study investigating CBD-drug interactions, CBD’s relationship with the Cytochrome P450-complex enzyme proved especially intriguing. This enzyme is the active compound in over half of the pharmaceutical medications being prescribed today, and it is the method by which the drug can treat physical symptoms. It is also responsible for the processes in which a drug is activated, or “metabolized” within the liver.
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