I’ve spoken with my doctor and he’s said that it CDB has a slight chance of working for me but that he wouldn’t recommend marijuana itself. He recommended that if I go the CDB route, I use it topically as to not upset my already angry-all-the-time digestive system. It’s all legal here; I live in Oregon. I don’t know what to do. I’m so afraid to even try it. I have no way to quickly get to a hospital if I start to freak out or anything. I’m all alone and no one can even provide a ride in that situation to get me to one and I’d hate to call an ambulance in the event of an already terrifying situation, not to mention how hard vehicle rides are for me at all even when I have no other cause making it worse. I know that most people don’t ever have any type of serious effect from any level of anything cbd or even thc related, but the one time I was given demerol when I was in labor was an absolutely terrifying nightmare for me… at least I was already in a hospital and supervised. No one is going to hospitalize me so that I can use cbd oil… I just don’t know what to do. I need a solution, I want my life back.
CBD may offer an option for treating different types of chronic pain. A study from the European Journal of Pain showed, using an animal model, CBD applied on the skin could help lower pain and inflammation due to arthritis. Another study demonstrated the mechanism by which CBD inhibits inflammatory and neuropathic pain, two of the most difficult types of chronic pain to treat. More study in humans is needed in this area to substantiate the claims of CBD proponents about pain control.
Acne can have a very devastating impact on certain people. Acne can actually lower one’s self esteem and confidence. The good news is that recent research studies have shown that CBD oil can be a great way of treating acne. A recent research study by Journal of Clinical Investigations revealed that CBD oil helps to in lowering production of sebum which leads to acne. This is because CBD oil decreases the lipid synthesis and the proliferation of sebaceous glands, and also has anti inflammatory effects on the sebaceous glands, therefore delivering a therapeutic agent for treatment of acne.
Revida Labs oil (tincture is amazing, but expensive. Procana also has good tincture. In terms of CBD products it is important to find a product that is lab tested and willing to show you the lab results that prove they have the amount of CBD in it that they claim. Also make sure they use natural and/or organic ingredients. You don’t want any chemicals in the product. Also, if you can, try to go to a store where they are sold and see if you can try a sample if you are doing a tincture. Some tinctures can taste awful. For psoriasis it can benefit you to take it orally and to put the oil on topically. I use CBD for pain but my twin sister has psoriasis and uses the tincture from Procana for her psoriasis.

It was a tough one to decide, but if you are going for a CBD product, then we would recommend checking out the products at Elixinol. While other CBD products stores have high-quality products, our choice simply came down to the extraction process and their Pharmaceutical-grade Testing. It They produce excellent medical products and have been doing so since 1991.


“…Acute CBD administration by the oral, inhalatory or intravenous route did not induce any significant toxic effect in humans. In addition, chronic administration of CBD for 30 days to healthy volunteers, at daily doses ranging from 10 to 400 mg, failed to induce any significant alteration in neurological, psychiatric or clinical exams. Finally, in patients suffering from Huntington’s disease, daily doses of CBD (700 mg) for 6 weeks did not induce any toxicity.”
Online Retailers: Most CBD oils are sold through online retailers. These establishments tend to have the widest product range, and many offer free doorstep delivery. Online retailers also frequently post product reviews, allowing buyers to compare different oils based on customer experiences to determine which is best for them. These reviews can also be used to evaluate the retailer based on customer service, delivery, and product quality.
Thanks for taking the time to leave us this feedback. Dry mouth is not an uncommon side effect of CBD oil, but difficulty swallowing and breathing would indicate that you may have an allergy. However, because the symptoms are lingering, we’d suggest seeing your doctor, as an allergic reaction to any substance would not last for longer than a few hours to a few days at most. If there’s anything we can do to help, or if your doctor would want to call us to chat through any questions regarding CBD oil, know that we’re happy to do so.

As more and more states legalize the use of marijuana, a product known as CBD oil has surged in popularity. A chemical compound found in the cannabis plant, CBD, or cannabidiol, is non-intoxicating and does not cause the noticeable euphoric effects associated with tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC, another marijuana compound). Products marketed as CBD oil may contain THC.


NuLeaf Naturals CBD oil tinctures are all full spectrum; it is 100% organic and never made with herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers. The brand offers a full spectrum pet CBD oil tincture, as well. NuLeaf Naturals offers free shipping to all 50 states; the brand’s products are also sold in more than 1,000 retail locations across the country.
These reports suffered from a number of design flaws, including incomplete baseline quantification of baseline seizure frequency, indeterminate time periods for outcome determination and, in some cases, inadequate (or missing) statistical analysis—in general, a lack of sufficient detail to adequately evaluate and interpret the findings. Limitations aside, several studies did report that administration of adjunctive CBD did not result in meaningful changes in seizure frequency (11–13).
Sorry to hear that CBD didn’t prove to be the solution we were hoping for. Remember that our return policy guarantees products, so bring your bottle back into the store and we’ll give you full in-store credit. We’d be happy too, to help you keep looking for a solution. You are 100% right — CBD isn’t a miracle cure-all, and because we’re all different, CBD works great for many people, but not for everyone. Stop back in — we’re here to help!
This mint-green bath bomb, made by Los Angeles-based De La Beuh, combines the invigorating aromatherapy of peppermint oil with the pain relief benefits of CBD. I sat in the bath with this bath bomb soak for an hour—until the water ran cold—when I had both cramps and lower back aches, and while it doesn’t beat ingesting a painkiller, it did help soothe my pains so that I fell asleep as soon as I hit the pillow. De La Beuh sells bath bombs in many varieties—including a glittery Kaleidoscope version that will turn your bath into “unicorn” colors—so your preference just depends on your preferred aroma.
CBD hemp oil is the product derived from the hemp plant, which is high in CBD (cannabidiol) and low in THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). This oil has received a large amount of attention in recent years, due to the growing wave of marijuana legislation and debate in many countries, including the United States. While cannabis and smoking marijuana (which often has a high level of the psychotropic compound THC) is still illegal in many places, as more is being learned about CBD, and its potential effects on health, it is becoming more and more accepted as a legal and safe remedy for a wide variety of health conditions. Since it has a minimal amount of the psychotropic compound THC, use of this oil does not result in a traditional “high”, so its effects are generally considered therapeutic, not mind-altering.
Pioneers of the CBD industry, 4 Corners Cannabis helped pave the way for companies that want to provide quality products and utilize best practices. They grow their own strain of hemp and make small batches of true full-spectrum CBD products. Their prices place them lower down on our ranking, but their highly satisfied customers are more than willing to pay for the 4 Corners quality.  

Okay, hands down, these things actually work! I tried a sample of this yesterday, just one gummy worm, and I felt an overall numbness as my current back pain vanished, AND put me in a nice relaxed state of mind. Something I could not achieve with over the counter meds. The “Good Vibes” CBD edible gummies have 10mg 15mg of CBD per gummy. What surprising is you can’t taste any presence of CBD! No hint of hemp or plant whatsoever. Honestly, it can be mistaken as a regular candy. It is gluten-free and comes with different flavors such as watermelon and cola. Currently on sale for $20 off.


This is the second time Moon Mother Hemp Company has placed among the top five brands on our ranking. The Colorado-based company, which was founded about a year ago, sets the bar very high for quality (including USDA-certified organic hemp) without charging the moon for its products. Their tinctures taste so good, you may be sad you don’t need more.  
Using rigorous review methodology, Gloss and Vickery conclude that based on the low quality of the reports available, there is insufficient data available to draw any conclusions regarding the efficacy and or long-term safety of CBD in treating epilepsy (11). From the data available, it does appear that daily doses of 200 to 300 mg were safe in this small group of patients for a short period of time (14).
A study from 2016 worked with 214 people with epilepsy. The study participants added oral doses of 2 to 5mg of CBD per day to their existing anti-epilepsy medications. The study’s researchers monitored the participants for 12 weeks, recording any negative side effects and checking on the frequency of their seizures. Overall, participants had 36.5 percent fewer seizures per month. However, severe adverse effects were recorded in 12 percent of the participants.
At the top of our ranking is Portland-based Lazarus Naturals, which has honed a reputation for high-quality, affordable CBD. Their consciously crafted CBD is sourced from organic, Oregon-grown hemp which the company controls from seed to sale. With low prices, a robust assistance program, free shipping, and a 30-day, no questions asked return policy, you really can’t go wrong with Lazarus Naturals.
Side effects can include some CBD oil drug interactions — specifically, the inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism and decreased activity of p-glycoprotein. In layman’s terms, CBD oil can inhibit the activity of some liver enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing pharmaceutical drugs. High doses of CBD oil can temporarily neutralize these liver enzymes, which affects the way the drugs are used in your body.
There can be many causes for chronic headaches, from allergies to misalignments, to stress and much more. I’d suggest that you see a chiropractor or medical doctor. CBD is an excellent aid and supplement, but it isn’t a replacement for professional medical advice when that is necessary! If there’s anything we can do to help you out, never hesitate to give us a call or stop by one of our store locations. Hope you feel better soon!
Side efects mentioned in this review are more likely encountered when people take higher doses of CBD. Variations can also result from bioavailability and route of administration. For instance, nasal administration results in much higher brain levels than transdermal, or oral applications of equivalent amounts, so less CBD is needed when taken nasally.
Many people say that you should scrub your body with leftover coffee grounds because the caffeine helps get rid of cellulite. (It is actually well documented in medical literature.) But if you feel weird about dipping into the coffee machine at the office, try this CBD-infused coffee scrub, made with coconut oil and shea butter for extra moisturizing benefits, instead. I like using it when I need a little bit of medication with my exfoliation (which the coffee grounds are for)—plus, the strong scent of coffee will wake you up if you use it in the morning. If you live with anyone else, just make sure to clean the shower afterwards—coffee scrubs can be messy and staining.
The above details illustrate the value of House of Healing Hemp Oil to our health. Apart from relieving pain and anxiety, it also contributes to the health of our heart system. Though not all people love the local flavor, many enjoy the taste. $59.99 is affordable for many people. As a result, House of Healing Hemp Oil is accessible. Among the best CBD oil on the market, it has won its place on the top. To experience the effectiveness of CBD oil, consider House of Healing Hemp Oil as a priority.
If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your healthcare provider or 911 immediately. Any mention of products or services is not meant as a guarantee, endorsement, or recommendation of the products, services, or companies. Reliance on any information provided is solely at your own risk. Please discuss any options with your healthcare provider. 

Cost is another consideration. Most CBD oils are sold in concentrations of 300 to 750 mg, although this may range from less than 100 mg to more than 2,000. A good indicator of price-point is the cost per milligram. Low-cost CBD oils usually fall between five and 10 cents per mg; mid-range prices are 11 to 15 cents per mg; and higher-end oils cost 16 cents per mg or higher. Given these varying per-milligram costs, a bottle of CBD oil may be priced anywhere from $10 or less to $150 or more.
However, since it sounds like you went through several brands, I’d say it sounds like you may have a sensitivity, if not an allergy, to CBD. While a reaction so violent is very uncommon, it’s important to remember that we are all made differently. We have different sensitivities, different thresholds, different metabolism. What works for some (or even most) won’t work for everyone. Your advice is on point – go slowly and listen to your body! Thanks for sharing your story in our community!
What’s impressive about Ultra High Strength Hemp Oil is its ability to relieve pain and anxiety as explained above. It also has other benefits like enhanced mental clarity. If you are the taste sensitive type, then you’ll love this oil. It comes in different flavors. It’s among the best CBD oil in the market. If you need one, you might want to make Ultra High Strength Hemp Oil your choice.

Is the product full spectrum or an isolate? We believe full spectrum CBD oils have greater therapeutic value. Some people talk about the “entourage effect,” or multiple cannabinoids working together. Experts we talk to support the idea of whole-plant therapy. Look for full-spectrum oils. Be careful not to get duped into buying products that use words like “pure” or “potent.” See past the marketing.
The above details illustrate the value of House of Healing Hemp Oil to our health. Apart from relieving pain and anxiety, it also contributes to the health of our heart system. Though not all people love the local flavor, many enjoy the taste. $59.99 is affordable for many people. As a result, House of Healing Hemp Oil is accessible. Among the best CBD oil on the market, it has won its place on the top. To experience the effectiveness of CBD oil, consider House of Healing Hemp Oil as a priority.
Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is a phyto-cannabinoid found in cannabis plants. However, it does not cause the same psychoactive effects as other naturally occurring cannabinoids (such as tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC). CBD induces feelings of sleepiness and tranquility, making it suitable for insomnia and other sleep disorders; CBD can be used to alleviate symptoms of epilepsy, diabetes, and anxiety disorders, as well. Legality is an issue for some; all 50 states have laws governing the sale, possession, and use of CBD, and they vary significantly (see the table below for a full analysis).
This review paper on the safety and side effects of cannabidiol by the NCBI, for example, suggests that controlled cannabidiol administration is safe and non-toxic in humans and animals. It also does not induce changes in food intake, nor does it affect physiological parameters like heart rate, body temperature or blood pressure. Also, according to this review paper, “high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans.”
Now I was able to find the interpretation for everything else in the legend, however NT is not disclosed in the legend…so one has no way of interpreting until you actually speak with a customer service agent, unless the assumption is made. Fishy, but I am an agent and am soooo rooting for CTFO to prove me wrong since I have skin in the game already.

Your comment is a great reminder for everyone in regard to several things! First, it’s vital to source CBD from a trusted, reputable company that is committed purity and ingredient integrity. With the recent boom in CBD supplements, lots of shady businesses have jumped in with poorly made products, some of which are made using dangerous additives. When we hear about violent reactions to CBD like those you described, it’s almost always due to a poor quality product.
If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your healthcare provider or 911 immediately. Any mention of products or services is not meant as a guarantee, endorsement, or recommendation of the products, services, or companies. Reliance on any information provided is solely at your own risk. Please discuss any options with your healthcare provider.
When testing cbd chocolate we look for both potency and taste. We found the 60% Dark Chocolate offering by Pure Science Lab to exceed out expectations and deliver a great tasting chocolate bar with a nice amount of CBD that you can easily measure by square (each has 5mg). Pure Science takes pride in their usage of only 100% pure cbd spectrum vs cbd isolate like many brands offer. If you're looking for a great edible with almost no taste of hemp this is your go to!

I have used CBD edibles, lotion, water & syrup. It can certainly cause your head to feel strange in high doses. In small doses it is highly therapeutic in larger does this is what I experienced… increased anxiety, strange feelings in the head, sweating, clamy & very unattached. It was scary but know that nothing bad can happen. The effects unfortunately at high doses can last for hours. It was almost 6 hours of strange discomfort. I thought I would end up in the hospital. I realized it was similar to taking too much THC & the results are you over react to whatever the symptoms are as they are perceived as exaggerated.

How your body reacts to CBD is unique. Also, whether you want to “feel relaxed” or simply take a daily supplement is up to you. A capsule may give your body cannabinoids that steadily absorb into your body over time. A vape you’ll feel right away. Oils are closer to vapes in how quickly they work, but they take time to get into your system. Don’t immediately take more. The impact of CBD may be cumulative.

CBD oils may contain some THC. Cannabis may impair your ability to drive safely or operate equipment and may have short- and long-term effects on your memory, attention, mood, heart rate, and mental health. It is also easy to overconsume CBD oil, so it's important to start with a low dose, as it may take several hours or longer to begin to feel the effects after consumption.
The interest and preference for botanical remedies such as CBD oil over harsh pharmaceuticals are growing rapidly. You can read scientific research on the promise of CBD Oil at NCBI. While North America is taking the lead legalizing cannabis and hemp the rest of the world is starting to question their stance on prohibition because of the undeniable benefits. While all talk about plant-based remedies may seem very new, using cannabis/hemp tinctures as a holistic remedy is a generations-old tradition. It was very common to use tinctures of cannabis oil in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We are enjoying a renaissance in ancestral health where we are open again to remedies that were all but forgotten about in the mad race to make medicines a pill offered by a faceless often unaccountable corporation.

Hi. I stumbled upon this website because I’ve heard numerous times that cbd or possibly marijuana use could potentially help me with several of my problems. I’m an absolute mess all the time and I can’t take most medications for numerous different reasons. I want to start by saying that I’ve never used any recreational drugs and barely can coax myself to even take my prescribed medications due to serious phobias. My family is full of addicts and I was always afraid to be one of them.

While the other CBD oil stores have high-quality products, our choice simply came down to variety, potency and price. Whichever you choose to go for, though, know that all of the companies above have an outstanding store and offer a wide range of effective products, from CBD oils to Terps and even CBD creams. Plus, most have a 100% money back guarantee policy, which is quite nice!
Great points and thanks for the clarification. To be clear, THC products are not readily available to purchase online (legally), so anyone hoping to try the CBD oil trend will have to settle for these alternatives for the time being, until the FDA approves more variations. Many people who are new to CBD see these options as a good entry-point before they experiment with larger mg amounts, and the reviews online are strong. Still, you are correct that full spectrum CBD oils may ultimately be better once they are legally approved to sell online to everyone.
Other targets for CBD include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are involved with the modulation of intracellular calcium (1, 6). Cannabinoids are highly lipophilic, allowing access to intracellular sites of action, resulting in increases in calcium in a variety of cell types including hippocampal neurons. CBD actions on calcium homeostasis may provide a basis for CBD neuroprotective properties.
People who experience psychosis may produce too much or even too little cannabinoids (from overactive dopamine receptors). CBD is milder than our internal cannabinoids and helps to re-establish a balance of cannabinoids in the brain. CBD also helps lower inflammation, which is often increased in schizophrenia. THC, on the other hand, is stronger than our internal cannabinoids (anandamide and 2-AG), this way potentially triggering psychosis [46, 48].
Cannabidiol is the major nonpsychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. Over the centuries, a number of medicinal preparations derived from C. sativa have been employed for a variety of disorders, including gout, rheumatism, malaria, pain, and fever. These preparations were widely employed as analgesics by Western medical practitioners in the 19th century (1). More recently, there is clinical evidence suggesting efficacy in HIV-associated neuropathic pain, as well as spasms associated with multiple sclerosis (1).
This non-greasy formula is a lightweight counterpart to all those heavy hemp salves and balms that you tend to see on the market, so much so that you could use this every day on your entire body without worries about staining your clothes. Along with the Colorado-grown CBD oil, it has a lotion base made with aloe vera leaf juice powder (good for antioxidants), lactic acid (good for exfoliation), and other reputable skincare ingredients. Keep this by your shower and use it while your skin is still moist, warm, and soft for the best results.
Great question! It’s possible that this could be related to the CBD, though it’s not a side effect that we’ve heard of before. We’d suggest lowering your dose for a while to see if the symptoms improve. If so, it may be that you should try a different brand or type of CBD extract. We’d be happy to chat further with you about this if you want to give us a call at 608-663-2640.

In the study, results suggested that the CYP3A4 enzyme was inactivated in many cases by dosages of CBD. This was due to the fact that CBD and the CYP3A4 enzyme had a defensive reaction to one another, thus causing the metabolites of CBD to become less effective as well. In other words, the CYP3A4 enzyme and CBD seem to “cancel out” the benefits of one another when CBD is taken simultaneously with certain medications.
This tincture is processed using the brand’s signature ‘Gold Formula,’ a full spectrum blend of terpenes, phytocannabinoids, fatty acids, and vitamin E. The drops are offered in three concentrations: 250mg in a 1-oz. container, or 750mg and 1,500mg in 2-oz. containers. Plus CBD Oil recommends taking half a dropper, or 15 drops, per dose. The drops are vegetarian-friendly and free of GMOs, gluten, and glycerin.
When CBD oil interacts with our brains’ and other receptors, it promotes and produces painkilling effects and anti-inflammatory. Interaction with a cellular level ECS, CBD greatly reduces the instances and severity of neuropathic or chronic pain, as it also increases the body’s serotonin production at the same time. On consuming CBD, the chemical effects in the bodywork for the benefit of people suffering from all types of chronic pains like in the joint, knee, and back.
Dry Mouth: As is the case with many other hemp- and marijuana-based products, CBD oil often leads to a condition known as dry mouth (or cottonmouth). This is likely due to cannabinoids altering receptors in the lower jaw that trigger salivation. In most cases, mild discomfort and stronger-than-average thirst are the only issues associated with dry mouth.
With so many companies popping up every day, we’ve done the hard work for you. We bring you the best CBD oil guide and the top 25 brands that made our list based on CBD oil quality, effectiveness, customer service and of course price. Please note, this article is updated constantly, so don’t forget come back from time to time to see the most updated information.
TOP PICK – Best Starter Kit Vape Bright excels in their single product offering: Thrive CBD vape kits. Each starter kit contains a 200mg CBD oil cartridge, a battery, USB charger, and case to get you started with CBD oil vaping. It’s a discreet product you can take with you anywhere. There’s no button, so all you have to do is simply inhale for some of the best vaporized CBD oil available on the market today. Each puff is approximately 1g CBD, offering some heavy hitting benefits up to 10x what you get from some of the other vapes on the market.
The important thing is that you have to be SUPER careful when selecting CBD oils. Since the cannabis industry is not FDA-regulated, there have been dozens and dozens of companies trying to get away with selling very low quality (and even potentially toxic), “snake oils” that have been extracted using harsh chemical solvents like butane and hexane. Make sure you stay away from cheap products like these, as they could damage your health.
I think being safe to eat is a moot point. These are topical products. I don’t think anybody is buying to eat them. It’s just a marketing tactic. In regards to the chapsticks, unless you were trying to literally eat the chapstick I think whatever negligible amount may make it past your lips and into your mouth, would certainly not be a health concern from any of these products. What concerns me more is there is zero efficacy with all of these products. Do they just decide over breakfast how much CBD needs to be added for the dosage to work? It’s ridiculous that they are marketing it as safe to eat, and people are buying into that bs and providing no clinical studies or research at all. Just my 2 cents
Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is a natural phyto-cannabinoid (or plant-based chemical compound) found in cannabis plants, including hemp and marijuana. Unlike other cannabinoids — namely tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC — CBD does not produce any psychoactive effects, and will actually counteract these effects to a degree. CBD will induce feelings of sleepiness; for this reason, it can be an effective soporific for people who struggle to fall and/or remain asleep due to insomnia and other sleep disorders.
CBD lotion is being used by high-performance athletes and regular people alike for its’ pain-reliving properties. The nearly instantaneous pain relief that you’ll receive from applying this to aching joints and muscles is more effective than the vast majority of supplements and medications that are generally used for pain relief (depending on your own unique genetic makeup, of course. Some people see huge benefits, others less).
Great question! It’s possible that this could be related to the CBD, though it’s not a side effect that we’ve heard of before. We’d suggest lowering your dose for a while to see if the symptoms improve. If so, it may be that you should try a different brand or type of CBD extract. We’d be happy to chat further with you about this if you want to give us a call at 608-663-2640.
Unfortunately due to the disappointing and down right inaccurate position of the federal government in classifying Cannabis as a schedule one drug, most research institutions risk federal funding if they conduct real research on Cannabis. This has dramatically limited the potential for real research by real scientists to be conducted. That research is critical to better understanding the multitude of therapeutic effects of the various chemical constituents found in Cannabis.
Quick review: We love CBDistillery for the value. With quality CBD oils starting at $20, CBDistillery offers good products at a great price. This affordability has made CBDistillery one of the fastest growing companies in the hemp space. Their Colorado-grown product line is also comprehensive, including various oil concentrations, salves, edibles, and suppositories.

CBD is an acronym for cannabidiol, and is among the most well known chemical compounds that’s found inside the cannabis plant apart from from THC. Unlike the THC however, cannabidoil doesn’t produce any psychoactive effects but has lots of benefits for our well being. CBD oil is created by basically extracting cannabidiol from the cannabis plant. In recent years, CBD oil has received a massave amount of attention mainly because of the growing wave of marijuana legislation in numerous countries, along with its’ growing popularity as a safe and effective treatment for various ailments and medical conditions. In this article, we are going to discuss the side effects and benefits of CBD Oil.
Psoriasis is a common skin condition which many people have. Some of the common symptoms of psoriasis include; small scale spots, broken skin, intense feeling of itchiness and red patches on the skin. In case you are suffering from the condition, it’s about time you learn about the amazing benefits of CBD oil. This powerful oil is considered to be one of the most beneficial all natural supplement which helps reduce proliferation of skin cells. This is among the reasons why the oil is recommended for people suffering from psoriasis. In addition to helping treat psoriasis, CBD oil also has properties such UV protection which is highly beneficial to the skin. 
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